AWS: The Complete Guide to Setting up a Simple Webserver
In short, I got sick and tired of paying $700/month for a cabinet in a datacenter and hosting my own servers. The failover was never REALLY truly redundant and my firm is just too small to justify hosting its own infrastructure. I’ve never been a fan of hosting services because I’ve always found them too limiting. I consider myself to be a damn good systems administrator and not having access to router configs and having root access to the machines were nonstarters for me. I’m set in my ways.
While my experience so far has been excellent, there are a number of pitfalls that you need to be aware of, and I will be sure to address those towards the end. This guide is intended for non-technical people to do very technical things so expect a LOT of explanation.
Sign up for Amazon Cloud Services
First, go to aws.amazon.com and create an account. You’ll have to enter your billing info, but as long as you stay within the free tier, you won’t be charged anything.
Set up your virtual machine
Next, you’ll want to create an EC2 instance. AWS Free Tier gives you 750 hours per month of Linux or Windows EC2 Micro Instances. There’s roughly that many hours in a month, so as long as you only have one micro instance, you should be completely free. For 99% of small business websites, this is PLENTY, though Amazon does offer a variety of configurations!
1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console. It’s a link under the dropdown in the top right with the credentials you already created.
2. Click on EC2
3. Click the button marked “Launch Instance”.
4. Click “Classic Wizard” and continue.
5. Select a 64 bit Amazon Linux AMI type server. This is a CentOS based linux server for those who are curious.
6. Set the number of instances to 1 and make sure that you have Micro for the type. The availability zone shouldn’t make a huge difference unless you’re latency sensitive and you know where your users are concentrated. If this isn’t you, select “no preference” on the dropdown and continue. On the next page, all of the defaults are fine, so go ahead and hit continue again.
8. On the next page, you’ll have to give server a name. Give your server a name in value box next to name and hit continue.
9. In order to access the server from your local machine, you will need to create a key pair. This will become important later when we discuss how to connect to the server, but for now just enter a name under “Create a New Key Pair” and click “Create & Download your Key Pair”. This will download a .pem file. NOTE: THIS FILE IS IMPORTANT Put it somewhere secure and preferably backed up.
10. To set up the firewall of the server, we need to allow webserver and administrative related traffic in but block out anything that might be malicious. See the settings in the image below:
11. Click “Launch” and you’ll have to give it a few minutes while AWS runs off and builds your configuration.
While we’re waiting, I want to get one last step out of the way so that we’re on top of things for what’s next. If you go to the instances menu item on the left, you’ll bring up a list that contains your server. Clicking on the server instance will bring up some information about your server on the bottom. Scroll down to “Public DNS” and copy the value to the right of it. You’re going to be using this address quite a bit. If you have registered a domain that you want to point to this server, now would be the time to do it. Go to your domain registrant and paste the Public DNS value into wherever your forwarding to. I host through godaddy, so I went to my DNS manager and changed the “@” record to the copied value.
Now let me explain a bit about what you’ve done so far. Those with a technical background can skip to the next section.
A virtual machine is a piece of software that emulates a computer’s hardware. You can put any operating system on it and it will just run. Virtual Machines are great for things like creating software testing environments because you can very quickly set up a “brand new clean” virtual machine, perform whatever tests you need, then throw it out and start fresh. You can vary hardware configurations such as memory, processor architecture, and hard drive size relatively easy. Amazon EC2 instances are virtual machines with public IP addresses that can be accessed from the internet, so they are ideal for our purposes. So far you’ve created a virtual server and made note of its public address, possibly hooking it up to a domain if you have one.
Get Connected to your VM
I’m running a mac using parallels, so I can explain how to connect your server to both environments. In my windows environment, I use WinSCP for file transfers and Putty for shell access. So go ahead and download both of those programs first. Next, dig up that .pem file that I told you was super important. You’re going to have to do a bit of work to get that .pem file to work with putty because it can only really use its proprietary format (don’t ask me why).
1. Open PuTTYgen.
2. Find .pem file. Click Conversions -> Import key.
3. Open the PEM file. The Key pane should populate with a public key, private key fingerprint, comment, and passphrase.
4. Change the comment from “imported-openssh-key” to whatever you named your key pair in step 9 above.
5. Pick a passphrase and click “Save private key.”
6. You’re going to store your key in a timesaver called Pagent, so go ahead and open it. When you open Pagent you’ll just see a new icon in the systemtray.
7. Right click on the new icon in the systray and click “Add Key”
8. Open your PPK file that you created with PuTTYgen and enter the passphrase you created.
9. Close the window
10. Grab the address of the server. Open Putty and paste the public address you copied into the Host Name input.
For Winscp, you’re just going to click the “new” button, and enter all of your hostname and login credentials like you did for Putty. There’s a “Private Key File” option that you’ll use to specify that same .PPK file that you created for Putty. After you’ve done this, go ahead and try to connect to browse the filesystem of your server.
On the mac side, I use the terminal to issue commands on the server. There’s a bit of set up involved to make it easy.
1. Take the key pair file (this is the .PEM, not the .PPK) and copy it to “/[your user id]/.ssh/”
2. Start up the Terminal application. I just go to the search bar and type “Terminal”
3. type “
ssh ec2-user@[your server's host address]“. The command will ultimately end up looking something like this:
Get services running on the VM
Now that our server us up and running and we have access to it, it’s time to issue a bunch of linux commands. I’m going to tell you what they are, then explain.
1. Connect to your server either using putty or mac terminal. The default login is
2. Type in (“run” for future reference)
sudo su. This will switch users to the root user. The root user is allowed to do whatever it wants whereas when you logged in as ec2-user, you’re highly restricted. If you’re on a PC, you can just copy the command text from here, go into your putty window and right click.
yum update – yum is a package manager. It connects to a repository of all of the latest greatest software available for this installation of linux and installs whatever software pacakges you tell it to. Think of it as the equivalent of windows update on steroids.
5. Fire up the webserver by running
service httpd start
6. Fire up the database server by running
service mysqld start
7. Let’s create a user ID and password for the mysql server and then restart the service
mysqladmin -u root password [new password] and then run
service mysqld restart
8. Test everything out to make sure that it worked.
nano index.php type in
<?php phpinfo(); ?> and then
CTRL + O then
CTRL + X. Now open a web browser and navigate to your hostname (if you’ve already forwarded your domain here, go ahead and give that a shot). The page should open with detailed information about your php settings.
9. [Optional] To make your life easy from a permission standpoint, it can’t hurt to make some folders easily accessible by ec2-user so that you can copy and run from your webserver.
chown -R ec2-user /var/www
Install web software
In this section, our ultimate goal is to install a CMS such as wordpress or drupal, but first we’re going to make our lives easy from a database standpoint by installing phpMyAdmin.
1. Go ahead and download phpMyAdmin from the link above. Unzip into a folder and copy that folder to
/var/www/html/ using winscp (or a copy command if you’re on a mac).
2. Change the name of the folder to something you can remember. “db_admin,” for example.
3. From a web browser, navigate to the folder you just installed. “www.example.com/db_admin,” for example.
4. PhpMyAdmin will allow you to create databases, which will be used by wordpress and/or drupal. You can create the databases now, but I would actually recommend waiting because web software will usually create the databases for you.
5. Using the steps above, follow this exact procedure to copy wordpress and drupal to their own folders. The installations themselves are pretty self explanatory, but if you need help I might be talked into doing a step-by-step guide for each of those.
I had this really nasty issue of the virtual machine running out of memory and mysql blowing up and crashing. I made some changes to my my.cnf file that made the installation significantly more stable but I was still left feeling like I wasn’t leaving myself enough room for error, so I also created a swapfile just to put my mind at ease.
You’ll want to navigate to /etc/my.cnf and open in an editor. If you login as root (
sudo su just like before) you can edit in nano, or you can use chown to allow you to edit the file in winscp as ec2-user. The changes I made to my my.cnf file are as follows:
# Set internal buffers, caches and stacks very low
key_buffer = 320K
table_cache = 10
sort_buffer_size = 320K
read_buffer_size = 320K
read_rnd_buffer_size = 24K
net_buffer_length = 24K
thread_stack = 320K
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 10M
To add a swapfile, issue the following commands in this exact order:
sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/var/swapfile bs=1M count=2048
sudo chmod 600 /var/swapfile
sudo mkswap /var/swapfile
echo /var/swapfile none swap defaults 0 0 | sudo tee -a /etc/fstab
sudo swapon -a